Research on peer relationships in early childhood settings shows young children learn important social strategies such as cooperating, negotiating and socializing, and also examines the role of peer play in children’s learning. However, further research is needed to encompass international research perspectives by examining peer play and relationships in different early childhood cultural contexts. Recent research offers theoretical variations relating to interactions that reveal qualities of peer play exemplified in: empathic play; dyadic, triadic, and collective group play; peer play and learning processes; sibling play, and young children’s perspectives on dramatic play. The main emphasis of researchers who study peer relations or peer play, is to voice different initiatives and express contradictory perspectives. Such tensions are regarded by us as helpful and positive because, when ameliorated with different shared life experiences and experimentations, they become both complementary and productive for generating new international research perspectives on peer play and relationships in early childhood.