Internal and near nozzle measurements of Engine Combustion Network “Spray G” gasoline direct injectors

Daniel J. Duke, Alan L Kastengren, Katarzyna E. Matusik, Andrew B. Swantek, Christopher F Powell, Raul Payri, Daniel Vaquerizo, Lama Itani, Gilles Bruneaux, Ronald O. Grover Jnr, Scott E. Parrish, Lee Markle, David Schmidt, Julien Manin, Scott A. Skeen, Lyle M. Pickett

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

40 Citations (Scopus)


Gasoline direct injection (GDI) sprays are complex multiphase flows. When compared to multi-hole diesel sprays, the plumes are closely spaced, and the sprays are more likely to interact. The effects of multi-jet interaction on entrainment and spray targeting can be influenced by small variations in the mass fluxes from the holes, which in turn depend on transients in the needle movement and small-scale details of the internal geometry. In this paper, we present a comprehensive overview of a multi-institutional effort to experimentally characterize the internal geometry and near-nozzle flow of the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) Spray G gasoline injector. In order to develop a complete picture of the near-nozzle flow, a standardized setup was shared between facilities. A wide range of techniques were employed, including both X-ray and visible-light diagnostics. The novel aspects of this work include both new experimental measurements, and a comparison of the results across different techniques and facilities. The breadth and depth of the data reveal phenomena which were not apparent from analysis of the individual data sets. We show that plume-to-plume variations in the mass fluxes from the holes can cause large-scale asymmetries in the entrainment field and spray structure. Both internal flow transients and small-scale geometric features can have an effect on the external flow. The sharp turning angle of the flow into the holes also causes an inward vectoring of the plumes relative to the hole drill angle, which increases with time due to entrainment of gas into a low-pressure region between the plumes. These factors increase the likelihood of spray collapse with longer injection durations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)608-621
Number of pages14
JournalExperimental Thermal and Fluid Science
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2017

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