Interleukin 6 Present in inflammatory ascites from advanced epithelial ovarian cancer patients promotes tumor necrosis factor receptor 2-expressing regulatory T cells

Nirmala Chandralega Kampan, Mutsa Tatenda Madondo, Orla M. McNally, Andrew N. Stephens, Michael A. Quinn, Magdalena Plebanski

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Background: Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remains a highly lethal gynecological malignancy. Ascites, an accumulation of peritoneal fluid present in one-third of patients at presentation, is linked to poor prognosis. High levels of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in ascites are correlated with tumor progression and reduced survival. Malignant ascites harbors high levels of Tregs expressing the tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2), as well as pro-inflammatory factors such as interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF). IL-6 is also associated with poor prognosis. Herein, we study the effect of IL-6 and TNF present in ascites on the modulation of TNFR2 expression on T cells, and specifically Tregs. Methods: Ascites and respective peripheral blood sera were collected from 18 patients with advanced EOC and soluble biomarkers, including IL-6, sTNFR2, IL-10, TGF-β, and TNF, were quantified using multiplexed bead-based immunoassay. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy donors were incubated with cell-free ascites for 48 h (or media as a negative control). In some experiments, IL-6 or TNF within the ascites were neutralized by using monoclonal antibodies. The phenotype of TNFR2+ Tregs and TNFR2- Tregs were characterized post incubation in ascites. In some experiments, cell sorted Tregs were utilized instead of PBMC. Results: High levels of immunosuppressive (sTNFR2, IL-10, and TGF-β) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF) were present in malignant ascites. TNFR2 expression on all T cell subsets was higher in post culture in ascites and highest on CD4+CD25hiFoxP3+ Tregs, resulting in an increased TNFR2+ Treg/effector T cell ratio. Furthermore, TNFR2+ Tregs conditioned in ascites expressed higher levels of the functional immunosuppressive molecules programmed cell death ligand-1, CTLA-4, and GARP. Functionally, TNFR2+ Treg frequency was inversely correlated with interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) production by effector T cells, and was uniquely able to suppress TNFR2+ T effectors. Blockade of IL-6, but not TNF, within ascites decreased TNFR2+ Treg frequency. Results indicating malignant ascites promotes TNFR2 expression, and increased suppressive Treg activity using PBMC were confirmed using purified Treg subsets. Conclusion: IL-6 present in malignant ovarian cancer ascites promotes increased TNFR2 expression and frequency of highly suppressive Tregs.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1482
Number of pages14
JournalFrontiers in Immunology
Volume8
Issue numberNOV
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 6 Nov 2017

Keywords

  • Effector T cells
  • Epithelial ovarian cancer
  • FoxP3
  • Inflammation
  • Interleukin 6
  • Malignant ascites
  • Regulatory T cells
  • Tumour necrosis factor 2

Cite this

@article{6a8a57efc56246b9be3512fcaad08e01,
title = "Interleukin 6 Present in inflammatory ascites from advanced epithelial ovarian cancer patients promotes tumor necrosis factor receptor 2-expressing regulatory T cells",
abstract = "Background: Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remains a highly lethal gynecological malignancy. Ascites, an accumulation of peritoneal fluid present in one-third of patients at presentation, is linked to poor prognosis. High levels of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in ascites are correlated with tumor progression and reduced survival. Malignant ascites harbors high levels of Tregs expressing the tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2), as well as pro-inflammatory factors such as interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF). IL-6 is also associated with poor prognosis. Herein, we study the effect of IL-6 and TNF present in ascites on the modulation of TNFR2 expression on T cells, and specifically Tregs. Methods: Ascites and respective peripheral blood sera were collected from 18 patients with advanced EOC and soluble biomarkers, including IL-6, sTNFR2, IL-10, TGF-β, and TNF, were quantified using multiplexed bead-based immunoassay. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy donors were incubated with cell-free ascites for 48 h (or media as a negative control). In some experiments, IL-6 or TNF within the ascites were neutralized by using monoclonal antibodies. The phenotype of TNFR2+ Tregs and TNFR2- Tregs were characterized post incubation in ascites. In some experiments, cell sorted Tregs were utilized instead of PBMC. Results: High levels of immunosuppressive (sTNFR2, IL-10, and TGF-β) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF) were present in malignant ascites. TNFR2 expression on all T cell subsets was higher in post culture in ascites and highest on CD4+CD25hiFoxP3+ Tregs, resulting in an increased TNFR2+ Treg/effector T cell ratio. Furthermore, TNFR2+ Tregs conditioned in ascites expressed higher levels of the functional immunosuppressive molecules programmed cell death ligand-1, CTLA-4, and GARP. Functionally, TNFR2+ Treg frequency was inversely correlated with interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) production by effector T cells, and was uniquely able to suppress TNFR2+ T effectors. Blockade of IL-6, but not TNF, within ascites decreased TNFR2+ Treg frequency. Results indicating malignant ascites promotes TNFR2 expression, and increased suppressive Treg activity using PBMC were confirmed using purified Treg subsets. Conclusion: IL-6 present in malignant ovarian cancer ascites promotes increased TNFR2 expression and frequency of highly suppressive Tregs.",
keywords = "Effector T cells, Epithelial ovarian cancer, FoxP3, Inflammation, Interleukin 6, Malignant ascites, Regulatory T cells, Tumour necrosis factor 2",
author = "Kampan, {Nirmala Chandralega} and Madondo, {Mutsa Tatenda} and McNally, {Orla M.} and Stephens, {Andrew N.} and Quinn, {Michael A.} and Magdalena Plebanski",
year = "2017",
month = "11",
day = "6",
doi = "10.3389/fimmu.2017.01482",
language = "English",
volume = "8",
journal = "Frontiers in Immunology",
issn = "1664-3224",
publisher = "Frontiers Media",
number = "NOV",

}

Interleukin 6 Present in inflammatory ascites from advanced epithelial ovarian cancer patients promotes tumor necrosis factor receptor 2-expressing regulatory T cells. / Kampan, Nirmala Chandralega; Madondo, Mutsa Tatenda; McNally, Orla M.; Stephens, Andrew N.; Quinn, Michael A.; Plebanski, Magdalena.

In: Frontiers in Immunology, Vol. 8, No. NOV, 1482, 06.11.2017.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Interleukin 6 Present in inflammatory ascites from advanced epithelial ovarian cancer patients promotes tumor necrosis factor receptor 2-expressing regulatory T cells

AU - Kampan, Nirmala Chandralega

AU - Madondo, Mutsa Tatenda

AU - McNally, Orla M.

AU - Stephens, Andrew N.

AU - Quinn, Michael A.

AU - Plebanski, Magdalena

PY - 2017/11/6

Y1 - 2017/11/6

N2 - Background: Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remains a highly lethal gynecological malignancy. Ascites, an accumulation of peritoneal fluid present in one-third of patients at presentation, is linked to poor prognosis. High levels of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in ascites are correlated with tumor progression and reduced survival. Malignant ascites harbors high levels of Tregs expressing the tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2), as well as pro-inflammatory factors such as interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF). IL-6 is also associated with poor prognosis. Herein, we study the effect of IL-6 and TNF present in ascites on the modulation of TNFR2 expression on T cells, and specifically Tregs. Methods: Ascites and respective peripheral blood sera were collected from 18 patients with advanced EOC and soluble biomarkers, including IL-6, sTNFR2, IL-10, TGF-β, and TNF, were quantified using multiplexed bead-based immunoassay. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy donors were incubated with cell-free ascites for 48 h (or media as a negative control). In some experiments, IL-6 or TNF within the ascites were neutralized by using monoclonal antibodies. The phenotype of TNFR2+ Tregs and TNFR2- Tregs were characterized post incubation in ascites. In some experiments, cell sorted Tregs were utilized instead of PBMC. Results: High levels of immunosuppressive (sTNFR2, IL-10, and TGF-β) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF) were present in malignant ascites. TNFR2 expression on all T cell subsets was higher in post culture in ascites and highest on CD4+CD25hiFoxP3+ Tregs, resulting in an increased TNFR2+ Treg/effector T cell ratio. Furthermore, TNFR2+ Tregs conditioned in ascites expressed higher levels of the functional immunosuppressive molecules programmed cell death ligand-1, CTLA-4, and GARP. Functionally, TNFR2+ Treg frequency was inversely correlated with interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) production by effector T cells, and was uniquely able to suppress TNFR2+ T effectors. Blockade of IL-6, but not TNF, within ascites decreased TNFR2+ Treg frequency. Results indicating malignant ascites promotes TNFR2 expression, and increased suppressive Treg activity using PBMC were confirmed using purified Treg subsets. Conclusion: IL-6 present in malignant ovarian cancer ascites promotes increased TNFR2 expression and frequency of highly suppressive Tregs.

AB - Background: Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remains a highly lethal gynecological malignancy. Ascites, an accumulation of peritoneal fluid present in one-third of patients at presentation, is linked to poor prognosis. High levels of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in ascites are correlated with tumor progression and reduced survival. Malignant ascites harbors high levels of Tregs expressing the tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2), as well as pro-inflammatory factors such as interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF). IL-6 is also associated with poor prognosis. Herein, we study the effect of IL-6 and TNF present in ascites on the modulation of TNFR2 expression on T cells, and specifically Tregs. Methods: Ascites and respective peripheral blood sera were collected from 18 patients with advanced EOC and soluble biomarkers, including IL-6, sTNFR2, IL-10, TGF-β, and TNF, were quantified using multiplexed bead-based immunoassay. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy donors were incubated with cell-free ascites for 48 h (or media as a negative control). In some experiments, IL-6 or TNF within the ascites were neutralized by using monoclonal antibodies. The phenotype of TNFR2+ Tregs and TNFR2- Tregs were characterized post incubation in ascites. In some experiments, cell sorted Tregs were utilized instead of PBMC. Results: High levels of immunosuppressive (sTNFR2, IL-10, and TGF-β) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF) were present in malignant ascites. TNFR2 expression on all T cell subsets was higher in post culture in ascites and highest on CD4+CD25hiFoxP3+ Tregs, resulting in an increased TNFR2+ Treg/effector T cell ratio. Furthermore, TNFR2+ Tregs conditioned in ascites expressed higher levels of the functional immunosuppressive molecules programmed cell death ligand-1, CTLA-4, and GARP. Functionally, TNFR2+ Treg frequency was inversely correlated with interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) production by effector T cells, and was uniquely able to suppress TNFR2+ T effectors. Blockade of IL-6, but not TNF, within ascites decreased TNFR2+ Treg frequency. Results indicating malignant ascites promotes TNFR2 expression, and increased suppressive Treg activity using PBMC were confirmed using purified Treg subsets. Conclusion: IL-6 present in malignant ovarian cancer ascites promotes increased TNFR2 expression and frequency of highly suppressive Tregs.

KW - Effector T cells

KW - Epithelial ovarian cancer

KW - FoxP3

KW - Inflammation

KW - Interleukin 6

KW - Malignant ascites

KW - Regulatory T cells

KW - Tumour necrosis factor 2

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85034057938&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.3389/fimmu.2017.01482

DO - 10.3389/fimmu.2017.01482

M3 - Article

VL - 8

JO - Frontiers in Immunology

JF - Frontiers in Immunology

SN - 1664-3224

IS - NOV

M1 - 1482

ER -