OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the etiologic mechanism of proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and statin as regulators of synthesis of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), the physiological fibrinolysis inhibitor and an acute-phase reactant. METHODS AND RESULTS: Transient transfection and luciferase assay in HepG2 human hepatoma-derived cells demonstrated that IL-6 increased PAI-1 promoter activity and mevastatin decreased IL-6-inducible response. Systematic deletion assay of the promoter demonstrated that the region (-239 to -210 bp) containing a putative CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) binding site was necessary. Point mutation in this site abolished the IL-6-inducible response. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that C/EBPalpha, C/EBPbeta, and C/EBPdelta were involved in protein-DNA complex formation in intact cells. Deoxyribonuclease (DNase) I footprinting analysis revealed that 5 flanking region (-232 to -210 bp) is acute-phase response protein-binding site. C/EBPdelta binding activity was increased by IL-6 and attenuated by mevastatin. Mevastatin attenuated IL-6-mediated increase of C/EBPdelta protein in the nuclear extracts. IL-6 also increased PAI-1 and C/EBPdelta mRNA in mouse primary hepatocytes. CONCLUSIONS: IL-6 increases hepatic PAI-1 expression mediated by the -232- to -210-bp region of the promoter containing a C/EBPdelta binding site. Vascular protection by statins may be partly mediated through regulation of CEBPdelta and consequent modulation of PAI-1 expression.
|Pages (from-to)||1078 - 1084|
|Number of pages||7|
|Journal||Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology|
|Publication status||Published - 2005|