The immunosuppressive and antiinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL) 10 selectively upregulates the expression of the CC chemokine receptors CCR5, 2, and 1 in human monocytes by prolonging their mRNA half-life. IL-10-stimulated monocytes display an increased number of cell surface receptors for, and better chemotactic responsiveness to, relevant agonists than do control cells. In addition, IL-10-stimulated monocytes are more efficiently infected by HIV BaL. This effect was associated to the enhancement of vital entry through CCR5. These data add support to an emerging paradigm in which pro- and antiinflammatory molecules exert reciprocal and opposing influence on chemokine agonist production and receptor expression.