Interactive design of 3D maps with progressive projection

Helen Jenny, Bernhard Jenny, Lorenz Hurni

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)


The progressive projection is by origin a manual cartographic technique, traditionally used by panoramic landscape painters; however, it is rarely encountered in digitally created three-dimensional (3D) maps. In this article, the advantages of this specific projection when designing 3D maps are presented, the processes involved in its manual construction, as well as the existing and potential digital implementation approaches, are reviewed. A new algorithmic solution is described, allowing for user-friendly interactive bending of a terrain model into a progressive view, with options to add a curved horizon, to vertically exaggerate the terrain, and to create a 360° strip panorama. The resulting software, Terrain Bender, is freely available for download.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)211-221
Number of pages11
JournalCartographic Journal
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2010
Externally publishedYes


  • 3D cartography
  • cylindrical projection
  • panorama
  • surface deformation
  • terrain bending

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