Integration of hindbrain and carotid body mechanisms that control the autonomic response to cardiorespiratory and glucoprivic insults

Zohra M. Kakall, E. Myfanwy Cohen, Melissa M.J. Farnham, Seung Jae Kim, Polina E. Nedoboy, Paul M. Pilowsky

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleResearchpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Autonomic reflex responses are critical in restoring changes to circulatory factors reduced beyond the domain of homeostasis. Intermittent hypoxia triggers repeated activation of chemoreflexes, resulting in baroreflex dysfunction and widespread changes in cellular and neuronal activity regulated by sensory/motor pathways. Hypoglycaemia initiates a rapid neurally-mediated counter-regulatory response. This counter-regulatory response to hypoglycaemia increases plasma adrenaline levels, liver glycogenolysis, and thus blood glucose levels. Context-dependent activation of rostral ventral medullary neurons initiates baroreceptor unloading, peripheral chemoreflex firing and the counter-regulatory response to hypoglycaemia. In this review, we briefly focus on the functional integration between peripheral and medullary pathways comprising the sympathetic baroreflex, chemoreflexes, and the counter-regulatory response to hypoglycaemia.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)83-91
Number of pages9
JournalRespiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • Baroreflex
  • Cardiorespiratory
  • Chemoreflex
  • Hypoglycaemia
  • Hypoglycaemia counter-regulatory response
  • Hypoxia

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