Integration of electric vehicles and renewable energy in Indonesia’s electrical grid

Ahmad Amiruddin, Roger Dargaville, Ariel Liebman, Ross Gawler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


As the global transition toward sustainable energy gains momentum, integrating electric vehicles (EVs), energy storage, and renewable energy sources has become a pivotal strategy. This paper analyses the interplay between EVs, energy storage, and renewable energy integration with Indonesia’s grid as a test case. A comprehensive energy system modeling approach using PLEXOS is presented, using historical data on electricity generation, hourly demand, and renewable energy, and multiple scenarios of charging patterns and EV adoption. Through a series of scenarios, we evaluate the impact of different charging strategies and EV penetration levels on generation capacity, battery storage requirements, total system cost, renewable energy penetration, and emissions reduction. The findings reveal that optimized charging patterns and higher EV adoption rates, compared to no EVs adoption, led to substantial improvements in renewable energy utilization (+4%), emissions reduction (−12.8%), and overall system cost (−9%). While EVs contribute to reduced emissions compared to conventional vehicles, non-optimized charging behavior may lead to higher total emissions when compared to scenarios without EVs. The research also found the potential of vehicle to grid (V2G) to reduce the need for battery storage compared to zero EV (−84%), to reduce emissions significantly (−23.7%), and boost penetration of renewable energy (+10%). This research offers valuable insights for policymakers, energy planners, and stakeholders seeking to leverage the synergies between EVs and renewable energy integration to pursue a sustainable energy future for Indonesia.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2037
Number of pages24
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 25 Apr 2024


  • electric vehicles
  • energy modeling
  • energy storage
  • Indonesia
  • net zero emissions
  • renewable energy integration
  • sustainable transportation

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