Aims: To evaluate the effectiveness of a pharmacist-led multi-component smoking cessation programme (GIVE UP FOR GOOD) compared with usual care in hospitalized smokers.
Design: Randomized, assessor-blinded, parallel-group trial. Setting: Three tertiary public hospitals in Australia. Participants: A total of 600 adult in-patient smokers [mean ± standard deviation (SD), age 51 ± 14 years; 64% male] available for 12 months follow-up.
Interventions: Multi-component hospital pharmacist-led behavioural counselling and/or pharmacotherapy provided during hospital stay, on discharge and 1 month post-discharge, with further support involving community health professionals (n = 300). Usual care comprised routine care provided by hospitals (n = 300).
Measurements: Two primary end-points were tested using intention-to-treat analysis: carbon monoxide (CO)-validated 1-month sustained abstinence at 6-month follow-up and verified 6-month sustained abstinence at 12-month follow-up. Smoking status and pharmacotherapy usage were assessed at baseline, discharge, 1, 6 and 12 months. Findings: Sustained abstinence rates for intervention and control groups were not significantly different at both 6 months [11.6% (34 of 294) versus 12.6% (37 of 294); odds ratio (OR) = 0.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.55-1.50] and 12 months [11.6% (34 of 292) versus 11.2% (33 of 294); OR = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.63-1.73]. Secondary end-points, self-reported continuous abstinence at 6 and 12 months, also agreed with the primary end-points. Use of pharmacotherapy was higher in the intervention group, both during hospital stay [52.3% (157 of 300) versus 42.7% (128 of 300); P = 0.016] and after discharge [59.6% (174 of 292) versus 43.5% (128 of 294); P <0.001].
Conclusions: A pharmacist-led multi-component smoking cessation intervention provided during hospital stay did not improve sustained abstinence rates at either 6 or 12 months compared with routine hospital care.
- Randomized controlled trial
- Smoking cessation