Integrated GIS and multivariate statistical approach for spatial and temporal variability analysis for lake water quality index

Poornasuthra Subramaniam, Ali Najah Ahmed, Chow Ming Fai, Marlinda Abdul Malek, Pavitra Kumar, Yuk Feng Huang, Mohsen Sherif, Ahmed Elshafie

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4 Citations (Scopus)


It is critical to monitor water quality to keep water bodies ecologically healthy and facilitate the sustainable development of Kenyir Lake. Water quality differs temporally and spatially and is affected by several factors. Typically, water quality inspection systems are cost- and labour-intensive depending on water quality indicator count and sampling frequency. Optimising the frequency and location of water quality sampling is crucial. This study focused on collecting water samples from 22 locations in Kenyir Lake during different seasons (normal, dry, and wet). The study aimed to assess the spatial and temporal variations in the water quality of Kenyir Lake based on multivariate statistical methods. In this study, the following water quality parameters were selected for analysis: temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), and ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N). In addition, a water quality index was also calculated. GIS software was used to assess water quality data, and various multivariate statistical methods like cluster analysis (CA), discriminant analysis (DA), and principal component analysis (PCA) were employed. The outcome shows minor spatial differences concerning Kenyir Lake; however, the temporal variations were noteworthy during this study duration. Cluster analysis divided the locations into 3 clusters with TSS being key parameter affecting the spatial differences in water quality. Stepwise discriminant analysis based on three parameters, pH, temperature, and TSS, produced the associated classification matrix that correctly estimated 69.7% of the input. NH3-N and TSS were found to be the two critical aspects that affect water quality during dry, wet, or normal climatic conditions.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2190490
Number of pages29
JournalCogent Engineering
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • cluster analysis
  • discriminant analysis
  • Kenyir Lake
  • principal component analysis
  • water quality

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