Background: The Regional Framework for Triple Elimination of Mother-to-Child Transmission (EMTCT) of HIV, Hepatitis B (HBV) and Syphilis in Asia and the Pacific 2018-30 was endorsed by the Regional Committee of WHO Western Pacific in October 2017, proposing an integrated and coordinated approach to achieve elimination in an efficient, coordinated and sustainable manner. This study aims to assess the population impacts and cost-effectiveness of this integrated approach in the Cambodian context. Methods: Based on existing frameworks for the EMTCT for each individual infection, an integrated framework that combines infection prevention procedures with routine antenatal care was constructed. Using decision tree analyses, population impacts, cost-effectiveness and the potential reduction in required resources of the integrated approach as a result of resource pooling and improvements in service coverage and coordination, were evaluated. The tool was assessed using simulated epidemiological data from Cambodia. Results: The current prevention programme for 370,000 Cambodian pregnant women was estimated at USD$2.3 ($2.0-$2.5) million per year, including the duration of pregnancy and up to 18 months after delivery. A model estimate of current MTCT rates in Cambodia was 6.6% (6.2-7.1%) for HIV, 14.1% (13.1-15.2%) for HBV and 9.4% (9.0-9.8%) for syphilis. Integrating HIV and syphilis prevention into the existing antenatal care framework will reduce the total time required to provide this integrated care by 19% for health care workers and by 32% for pregnant women, resulting in a net saving of $380,000 per year for the EMTCT programme. This integrated approach reduces HIV and HBV MTCT to 6.1% (5.7-6.5%) and 13.0% (12.1-14.0%), respectively, and substantially reduces syphilis MCTC to 4.6% (4.3-5.0%). Further introduction of either antiviral treatment for pregnant women with high viral load of HBV, or hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) to exposed newborns, will increase the total cost of EMTCT to $4.4 ($3.6-$5.2) million and $3.3 ($2.7-$4.0) million per year, respectively, but substantially reduce HBV MTCT to 3.5% (3.2-3.8%) and 5.0% (4.6-5.5%), respectively. Combining both antiviral and HBIG treatments will further reduce HBV MTCT to 3.4% (3.1-3.7%) at an increased total cost of EMTCT of $4.5 ($3.7-$5.4) million per year. All these HBV intervention scenarios are highly cost-effective ($64-$114 per disability-adjusted life years averted) when the life benefits of these prevention measures are considered. Conclusions: The integrated approach, using antenatal, perinatal and postnatal care as a platform in Cambodia for triple EMTCT of HIV, HBV and syphilis, is highly cost-effective and efficient.
- decision tree analysis
- hepatitis B (HBV)
- triple elimination of mother-to-child transmission (EMTCT)