Intake of fruits and vegetables and risk of pancreatic cancer in a pooled analysis of 14 Cohort studies

Anita Koushik, Donna Spiegelman, Demetrius Albanes, Kristin E. Anderson, Leslie Bernstein, Piet A. Van Den Brandt, Leif Bergkvist, Dallas R. English, Jo L. Freudenheim, Charles S Fuchs, Jeanine M. Genkinger, Graham G. Giles, R. Alexandra Goldbohm, Pamela L. Horn-Ross, Satu Männistö, Marjorie L. McCullough, Amy E. Millen, Anthony B. Miller, Kim Robien, Thomas E. RohanArthur Schatzkin, James M Shikany, Rachael Z. Stolzenberg-Solomon, Walter Churchill Willett, Alicja Wolk, Regina G Ziegler, Stephanie A. Smith-Warner

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleResearchpeer-review

51 Citations (Scopus)


Fruit and vegetable intake may protect against pancreatic cancer, since fruits and vegetables are rich in potentially cancer-preventive nutrients. Most case-control studies have found inverse associations between fruit and vegetable intake and pancreatic cancer risk, although bias due to reporting error cannot be ruled out. In most prospective studies, inverse associations have been weaker and imprecise because of small numbers of cases. The authors examined fruit and vegetable intake in relation to pancreatic cancer risk in a pooled analysis of 14 prospective studies from North America, Europe, and Australia (study periods between 1980 and 2005). Relative risks and 2-sided 95 confidence intervals were estimated separately for the 14 studies using the Cox proportional hazards model and were then pooled using a random-effects model. Of 862,584 men and women followed for 7-20 years, 2,212 developed pancreatic cancer. The pooled multivariate relative risks of pancreatic cancer per 100-g/day increase in intake were 1.01 (95 confidence interval (CI): 0.99, 1.03) for total fruits and vegetables, 1.01 (95 CI: 0.99, 1.03) for total fruits, and 1.02 (95 CI: 0.99, 1.06) for total vegetables. Associations were similar for men and women separately and across studies. These results suggest that fruit and vegetable intake during adulthood is not associated with a reduced pancreatic cancer risk.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)373-386
Number of pages14
JournalAmerican Journal of Epidemiology
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 2012
Externally publishedYes


  • diet
  • fruit
  • pancreatic neoplasms
  • prospective studies
  • vegetables

Cite this