The magnitude of infectious diseases in the twenty-first century created an urgent need for point-of-care diagnostics. Critical shortages in reagents and testing kits have had a large impact on the ability to test patients with a suspected parasitic, bacteria, fungal, and viral infections. New point-of-care tests need to be highly sensitive, specific, and easy to use and provide results in rapid time. Infrared spectroscopy, coupled to multivariate and machine learning algorithms, has the potential to meet this unmet demand requiring minimal sample preparation to detect both pathogenic infectious agents and chronic disease markers in blood. This focal point article will highlight the application of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to detect disease markers in blood focusing principally on parasites, bacteria, viruses, cancer markers, and important analytes indicative of disease. Methodologies and state-of-the-art approaches will be reported and potential confounding variables in blood analysis identified. The article provides an up to date review of the literature on blood diagnosis using infrared spectroscopy highlighting the recent advances in this burgeoning field.
- Infrared spectroscopy