Infrared (IR) spectroscopy has become a promising technique for the analysis of clinical samples, and IR-based diagnosis is already a well-established technique in the academic field. This review aims to report the methodologies proposed for IR quantification of different analytes and parameters in a variety of clinical samples; including: liquids, such as whole blood, serum, plasma, urine, human milk, amniotic fluid and cerebrospinal fluid; solids, such as urinary stones, skin, hair and lips; breath; or, microscopic quantifications on tissues. For the application of IR spectroscopy to the clinical field, we also discuss: the benefits, which make IR spectroscopy ideally suited to modern medicine; and, the limitations, which are connected with sensitivity and selectivity issues. The review focuses on recent developments based on modern improvements on chemometric algorithms, sample treatment and direct measurements on samples.
- Sample treatment
- Quantitative infrared analysis
- Point of care method
- Infrared spectroscopy
- Infrared-based quantification
- Clinical sample
- Clinical parameter