The initiation of antitumor immunity relies on dendritic cells (DCs) to cross-present cell-associated tumor Ag to CD8(+) T cells (T(CD8+)) due to a lack of costimulatory molecules on tumor cells. Innate danger signals have been demonstrated to enhance cross-priming of T(CD8+) to soluble as well as virally encoded Ags; however, their effect on enhancing T(CD8+) cross-priming to cell genome-encoded Ags remains unknown. Furthermore, influenza A virus (IAV) has not been shown to enhance antitumor immunity. Using influenza-infected allogeneic cell lines, we show in this study that T(CD8+) responses to cell-associated Ags can be dramatically enhanced due to enhanced T(CD8+) expansion. This enhanced cross-priming in part involves TLR7- but not TLR3-mediated sensing of IAV and is entirely dependent on MyD88 and IFN signaling pathways. We also showed that the inflammasome-induced IL-1 and IFN-gamma did not play a role in enhancing cross-priming in our system. We further demonstrated in our ex vivo system that CD8(+) DCs are the only APCs able to prime TCR-transgenic T(CD8+). Importantly, plasmacytoid DCs and CD8(-) DCs were both able to enhance such priming when provided in coculture. These observations suggest that IAV infection of tumor cells may facilitate improved cross-presentation of tumor Ags and may be used to augment clinical vaccine efficacy.
Wei, J., Waithman, J., Lata, R., Mifsud, N., Cebon, J., Kay, T., Smyth, M., Sadler, A., & Chen, W. (2010). Influenza a infection enhances cross-priming of CD8+ T cells to cell-associated antigens in a TLR7-and type I IFN-dependent fashion. Journal of Immunology, 185(10), 6013 - 6022. https://doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1002129