Influences of electrolytes and glucose on formulation of carbonate apatite nanocrystals for efficient gene delivery to mammalian cells

Sharif Hossain, Seiichi Tada, Toshihiro Akaike, Ezharul Hoque Chowdhury

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Genetic manipulation of human cells through delivery of a functional gene or a gene-silencing element is an attractive approach to treat critical diseases very precisely and effectively. Extensive research on the genetic basis of human diseases with complete sequencing of human genome has revealed many vital genes as possible targets in gene therapy programs. On the other hand, to facilitate cell- or tissue-directed delivery of genes and gene-silencing nucleic acid sequences, both genetic and chemical engineering approaches have led to the generation of various viral and nonviral carriers. However, considering the issues of both safety and efficacy, none of the existing vectors is an ideal candidate for clinical use. We recently established pH-sensitive inorganic nanocrystals of carbonate apatite with capability of efficient intracellular delivery and release of associated DNA molecules for subsequent protein expression. Here we show a new synthetic approach for carbonate apatite crystals with stronger affinity toward DNA, leading to significant increment in both transgene delivery and expression. Moreover, CaCl2 and NaCl, existing as the major electrolytes in the bicarbonate-buffered solution, dose-dependently govern particle size and eventually internalization and expression of particle-associated DNA.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)156-161
Number of pages6
JournalAnalytical Biochemistry
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 15 Feb 2010
Externally publishedYes


  • Carbonate apatite
  • Endocytosis
  • Gene expression
  • Glucose
  • NaCl
  • Nanocrystals
  • Particle size
  • Transfection

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