Influence of Wave–Current Interaction on a Cyclone-Induced Storm Surge Event in the Ganges–Brahmaputra–Meghna Delta: Part 1—Effects on Water Level

Md Wasif E. Elahi, Xiao Hua Wang, Julio Salcedo-Castro, Elizabeth A. Ritchie

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1 Citation (Scopus)


The Ganges–Brahmaputra–Meghna Delta (GBMD) located in the head of the Bay of Bengal is regularly affected by severe tropical cyclones frequently. The GBMD covers the Bangladesh coast, which is one of the most vulnerable areas in the world due to cyclone-induced storm surges. More than 30% of the total country’s population lives on the Bangladesh coast. Hence, it is crucial to understand the underlying processes that modulate the storm surge height in the GBMD. A barotropic numerical 3D model setup is established by using Delft3D and SWAN to investigate a cyclone-induced storm surge event. The model is calibrated and validated for Cyclone Sidr in 2007 and applied to six idealized cyclonic scenarios. Numerical experiments with different coupling configurations are performed to distinguish the contribution of wind, tides, waves, and wave–current interactions (WCI) on the storm surge height. Results show that the wind-driven setup is the dominant contributor to the storm surge height during cyclonic events. Based on the tidal phase and wind direction, the interaction between tide and wind can increase or decrease the magnitude of the storm surge height. Finally, considering the wind-driven wave may increase the surge height up to 0.3 m along the coastline through a strong wave setup.

Original languageEnglish
Article number328
Number of pages24
JournalJournal of Marine Science and Engineering
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2023


  • cyclone
  • Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta
  • ocean modelling
  • storm surge
  • tides
  • wave-current interaction

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