Influence of timeliness and receipt of first treatment on geographic variation in non-small cell lung cancer mortality

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


Mortality from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) exhibits substantial geographical disparities. However, there is little evidence on whether this variation could be attributed to patients' clinical characteristics and/or socioeconomic inequalities. This study evaluated the independent and relative contribution of the individual- and area-level risk factors on geographic variation in 2-year all-cause mortality among NSCLC patients. In the Hierarchical-related regression approach, we used the Bayesian spatial multilevel logistic regression model to combine individual- and area-level predictors with outcomes while accounting for geographically structured and unstructured correlation. Individual-level data included 3330 NSCLC cases reported to the Victoria Lung Cancer Registry between 2011 and 2016. Area-level data comprised socioeconomic disadvantage, remoteness and pollution data at the postal area level in Victoria, Australia. With the inclusion of significant individual- and area-level risk factors, timely (≤14 days) first definitive treatment (odds ratio [OR] = 0.73, 95% credible interval [Crl] = 0.56-0.94) and multidisciplinary meetings (MDM) (OR = 0.74, 95% Crl = 0.59-0.93) showed an independent association with a lower likelihood of NSCLC 2-year all-cause mortality. Timely and delayed (>14 days) first nondefinitive treatment, no treatment, advanced clinical stage, smoking, poor performance status, public hospital insurance and area-level deprivation were independently associated with a higher likelihood of 2- and 5-year all-cause mortality. NSCLC's 2-year all-cause mortality exhibited substantial geographic variation, mainly associated with timeliness and receipt of first definitive treatment, no treatment followed by patient prognostic factors with some contribution from area-level deprivation, MDM and public hospital insurance. This study highlights NSCLC patients should receive the first definitive treatment within the recommended 14-days from diagnosis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1828-1838
Number of pages11
JournalInternational Journal of Cancer
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 15 Apr 2021


  • all-cause mortality
  • Bayesian
  • multilevel
  • non-small cell lung cancer
  • spatial

Cite this