Ovariectomized Merino ewes were used to develop an in-vivo bioassay for purified bovine inhibin of M(r) 31,000. Various doses (0.25, 0.5, 1 or 2 ml) of bovine follicular fluid, given either by the intravenous (i.v.) or intracarotid route (i.c.) resulted in significant linear dose-related suppression of plasma FSH and interval to maximum suppression. Control ewes (1.0 ml steer plasma) showed no significant change in FSH over the same period. Doses of 470 and 2590 U of pure inhibin given i.v. caused a significant suppression of FSH in plasma in all ewes. The in-vivo potency estimate of the high dose (2760 U, 1420-4690 fiducial limits) agreed well with the in-vitro assay of potency. There were no significant changes observed in mean plasma LH after treatment with the higher dose of pure inhibin. There were no rebound effects of treatment with bovine follicular fluid or pure inhibin on FSH ocncentrations above that of controls. It is concluded that the form of bovine inhibin of M(r) 31,000, which is believed to be the predominant circulating form, is biologically active when administered in vivo.