Inflammasomes influence a diverse range of kidney disease, including acute and chronic kidney diseases, and those mediated by innate and adaptive immunity. Both IL-18 and in particular IL-1β are validated therapeutic targets in several kidney diseases. In addition to leukocyte-derived inflammasomes, renal tissue cells express functional inflammasome components. Furthermore, a range of endogenous substances that directly activate inflammasomes also mediate kidney injury. Many of the functional studies have focussed on the NLRP3 inflammasome, and there is also evidence for the involvement of other inflammasomes in some conditions. While, at least in some disease, the mechanistic details of the involvement of the inflammasome remain to be elucidated, therapies focussed on inflammasomes and their products have potential in treating kidney disease in the future.