Induction of respiratory immune responses in the chicken; implications for development of mucosal avian influenza virus vaccines

Eveline D. de Geus, Johanna M.J. Rebel, Lonneke Vervelde

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleResearchpeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)


The risk and the size of an outbreak of avian influenza virus (AIV) could be restricted by vaccination of poultry. A vaccine used for rapid intervention during an AIV outbreak should be safe, highly effective after a single administration and suitable for mass application. In the case of AIV, aerosol vaccination using live virus is not desirable because of its zoonotic potential and because of the risk for virus reassortment. The rational design of novel mucosal-inactivated vaccines against AIV requires a comprehensive knowledge of the structure and function of the lung-associated immune system in birds in order to target vaccines appropriately and to design efficient mucosal adjuvants. This review addresses our current understanding of the induction of respiratory immune responses in the chicken. Furthermore, possible mucosal vaccination strategies for AIV are highlighted.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)75-86
Number of pages12
JournalVeterinary Quarterly
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 4 Dec 2012
Externally publishedYes


  • Adjuvant
  • Antigen uptake
  • Avian influenza virus
  • BALT
  • Chicken
  • Haemagglutinin
  • Humoral immunity
  • Mucosal vaccination
  • Neuraminidase
  • Poultry
  • Respiratory tract

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