Liposomal vaccine formulations incorporating stimulants that target innate immune receptors have been shown to significantly increase vaccine immunity. Following vaccination, innate cell populations respond to immune stimuli, phagocytose and process Ag, and migrate from the injection site, via the afferent lymphatic vessels, into the local lymph node. In this study, the signals received in the periphery promote and sculpt the adaptive immune response. Effector lymphocytes then leave the lymph node via the efferent lymphatic vessel to perform their systemic function. We have directly cannulated the ovine lymphatic vessels to detail the in vivo innate and adaptive immune responses occurring in the local draining lymphatic network following vaccination with a liposome-based delivery system incorporating CpG. We show that CpG induces the rapid recruitment of neutrophils, enhances dendritic cell-associated Ag transport, and influences the maturation of innate cells entering the afferent lymph. This translated into an extended period of lymph node shutdown, the induction of IFN-gamma-positive T cells, and enhanced production of Ag-specific Abs. Taken together, the results of this study quantify the real-time in vivo kinetics of the immune response in a large animal model after vaccination of a dose comparable to that administered to humans. This study details enhancement of numerous immune mechanisms that provide an explanation for the immunogenic function of CpG when employed as an adjuvant within vaccines.
Neeland, M. R., Elhay, M. J., Nathanielsz, J., Meeusen, E. N. T., & de Veer, M. J. (2014). Incorporation of CpG into a liposomal vaccine formulation increases the maturation of antigen-loaded dendritic cells and monocytes to improve local and systemic immunity. Journal of Immunology, 192(8), 3666 - 3675. https://doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1303014