Naja sumatrana venom cytotoxin, sumaCTX exhibits concentration-dependent cytotoxicity via caspase-activated mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis without transitioning to necrosis

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The mechanism of suma-cytotoxin (sumaCTX)-induced cytotoxicity is poorly understood, especially in the transition of cell death pattern. This study examines its cytotoxicity, caspase-3/7 activity, mitochondrial functions, and occurrence of apoptosis. The sumaCTX triggered cytotoxicity in MCF-7 cells before 24 h, with activation of caspase-3/7 and mitochondrial depolarization, followed by a substantial percentage of AV+ apoptotic cells. The absence of HMGB1 suggested apoptosis was the profound cell death independent of its membrane perturbing effect, without transitioning into necrosis. Its cytotoxicity was a concentration-dependent but not time-dependent process. The findings provide valuable insight into mechanisms of sumaCTX-induced cytotoxicity in breast cancer cells.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)886-900
Number of pages5
JournalToxin Reviews
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2 Oct 2021


  • apoptosis
  • caspase
  • Cytotoxin
  • HMGB1
  • LDH
  • mitochondrial depolarization
  • Naja sumatrana

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