In-vivo quantitative mapping of the perforasomes of deep inferior epigastric artery perforators

Rachael Leung, Michael P. Chae, Vicky Tobin, David J. Hunter-Smith, Warren M. Rozen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Background: There is limited understanding of anatomy of perforator angiosomes, or “perforasomes,” of the deep inferior epigastric artery (DIEA). A perforasome is defined as the territory perfused by a single perforator vessel of a named artery, such as the DIEA. Given the clinical significance of this anatomical concept in microsurgical breast reconstruction, this study is a quantitative investigation of DIEA perforasome characteristics and patterns associated with perforasome size, perforator caliber, location and branching, using computed tomographic (CT) angiography. Methods: Twenty abdominal arterial-phase CT angiograms were analyzed in 3 dimensions using software (Horos). DIEA perforasomes were mapped, yielding data on 40 medial-row and 40 lateral-row perforasomes. Perforator branch extents and number were measured using 3-dimensional multi-planar reconstruction, and perforator caliber on axial slices. Results: Perforasomes exhibited eccentric branching distributions in horizontal and vertical axes, that is, a majority of perforators were not centrally located within their perforasomes. Lateral-row perforasomes displayed greater horizontal eccentricity than medial-row. There was a positive correlation between perforator caliber and perforasome size. Medial-row perforators had more branches and larger caliber than lateral-row. Conclusions: This is the first article to quantify relationships between perforators and their territories of supply in vivo, augmenting current understanding of perforasome theory. DIEA perforasomes can be readily visualized and mapped with CT angiography, which may enable effective preoperative flap planning in DIEA perforator flap breast reconstruction. Future investigation may highlight the importance of this information in improving surgical outcomes, including flap survival and fat necrosis reduction, through careful, perforasome-based flap design.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere1960
Number of pages6
JournalPlastic and Reconstructive Surgery - Global Open
Volume6
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2018

Cite this

@article{e19d424684dd45909d7a23c5e6781aba,
title = "In-vivo quantitative mapping of the perforasomes of deep inferior epigastric artery perforators",
abstract = "Background: There is limited understanding of anatomy of perforator angiosomes, or “perforasomes,” of the deep inferior epigastric artery (DIEA). A perforasome is defined as the territory perfused by a single perforator vessel of a named artery, such as the DIEA. Given the clinical significance of this anatomical concept in microsurgical breast reconstruction, this study is a quantitative investigation of DIEA perforasome characteristics and patterns associated with perforasome size, perforator caliber, location and branching, using computed tomographic (CT) angiography. Methods: Twenty abdominal arterial-phase CT angiograms were analyzed in 3 dimensions using software (Horos). DIEA perforasomes were mapped, yielding data on 40 medial-row and 40 lateral-row perforasomes. Perforator branch extents and number were measured using 3-dimensional multi-planar reconstruction, and perforator caliber on axial slices. Results: Perforasomes exhibited eccentric branching distributions in horizontal and vertical axes, that is, a majority of perforators were not centrally located within their perforasomes. Lateral-row perforasomes displayed greater horizontal eccentricity than medial-row. There was a positive correlation between perforator caliber and perforasome size. Medial-row perforators had more branches and larger caliber than lateral-row. Conclusions: This is the first article to quantify relationships between perforators and their territories of supply in vivo, augmenting current understanding of perforasome theory. DIEA perforasomes can be readily visualized and mapped with CT angiography, which may enable effective preoperative flap planning in DIEA perforator flap breast reconstruction. Future investigation may highlight the importance of this information in improving surgical outcomes, including flap survival and fat necrosis reduction, through careful, perforasome-based flap design.",
author = "Rachael Leung and Chae, {Michael P.} and Vicky Tobin and Hunter-Smith, {David J.} and Rozen, {Warren M.}",
year = "2018",
month = "10",
doi = "10.1097/GOX.0000000000001960",
language = "English",
volume = "6",
journal = "Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery - Global Open",
issn = "2169-7574",
publisher = "Lippincott Williams & Wilkins",
number = "10",

}

In-vivo quantitative mapping of the perforasomes of deep inferior epigastric artery perforators. / Leung, Rachael; Chae, Michael P.; Tobin, Vicky; Hunter-Smith, David J.; Rozen, Warren M.

In: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery - Global Open, Vol. 6, No. 10, e1960, 10.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - In-vivo quantitative mapping of the perforasomes of deep inferior epigastric artery perforators

AU - Leung, Rachael

AU - Chae, Michael P.

AU - Tobin, Vicky

AU - Hunter-Smith, David J.

AU - Rozen, Warren M.

PY - 2018/10

Y1 - 2018/10

N2 - Background: There is limited understanding of anatomy of perforator angiosomes, or “perforasomes,” of the deep inferior epigastric artery (DIEA). A perforasome is defined as the territory perfused by a single perforator vessel of a named artery, such as the DIEA. Given the clinical significance of this anatomical concept in microsurgical breast reconstruction, this study is a quantitative investigation of DIEA perforasome characteristics and patterns associated with perforasome size, perforator caliber, location and branching, using computed tomographic (CT) angiography. Methods: Twenty abdominal arterial-phase CT angiograms were analyzed in 3 dimensions using software (Horos). DIEA perforasomes were mapped, yielding data on 40 medial-row and 40 lateral-row perforasomes. Perforator branch extents and number were measured using 3-dimensional multi-planar reconstruction, and perforator caliber on axial slices. Results: Perforasomes exhibited eccentric branching distributions in horizontal and vertical axes, that is, a majority of perforators were not centrally located within their perforasomes. Lateral-row perforasomes displayed greater horizontal eccentricity than medial-row. There was a positive correlation between perforator caliber and perforasome size. Medial-row perforators had more branches and larger caliber than lateral-row. Conclusions: This is the first article to quantify relationships between perforators and their territories of supply in vivo, augmenting current understanding of perforasome theory. DIEA perforasomes can be readily visualized and mapped with CT angiography, which may enable effective preoperative flap planning in DIEA perforator flap breast reconstruction. Future investigation may highlight the importance of this information in improving surgical outcomes, including flap survival and fat necrosis reduction, through careful, perforasome-based flap design.

AB - Background: There is limited understanding of anatomy of perforator angiosomes, or “perforasomes,” of the deep inferior epigastric artery (DIEA). A perforasome is defined as the territory perfused by a single perforator vessel of a named artery, such as the DIEA. Given the clinical significance of this anatomical concept in microsurgical breast reconstruction, this study is a quantitative investigation of DIEA perforasome characteristics and patterns associated with perforasome size, perforator caliber, location and branching, using computed tomographic (CT) angiography. Methods: Twenty abdominal arterial-phase CT angiograms were analyzed in 3 dimensions using software (Horos). DIEA perforasomes were mapped, yielding data on 40 medial-row and 40 lateral-row perforasomes. Perforator branch extents and number were measured using 3-dimensional multi-planar reconstruction, and perforator caliber on axial slices. Results: Perforasomes exhibited eccentric branching distributions in horizontal and vertical axes, that is, a majority of perforators were not centrally located within their perforasomes. Lateral-row perforasomes displayed greater horizontal eccentricity than medial-row. There was a positive correlation between perforator caliber and perforasome size. Medial-row perforators had more branches and larger caliber than lateral-row. Conclusions: This is the first article to quantify relationships between perforators and their territories of supply in vivo, augmenting current understanding of perforasome theory. DIEA perforasomes can be readily visualized and mapped with CT angiography, which may enable effective preoperative flap planning in DIEA perforator flap breast reconstruction. Future investigation may highlight the importance of this information in improving surgical outcomes, including flap survival and fat necrosis reduction, through careful, perforasome-based flap design.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85065147928&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1097/GOX.0000000000001960

DO - 10.1097/GOX.0000000000001960

M3 - Article

VL - 6

JO - Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery - Global Open

JF - Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery - Global Open

SN - 2169-7574

IS - 10

M1 - e1960

ER -