In vitro toxic effects of puff adder (Bitis arietans) venom, and their neutralization by antivenom

Steven Fernandez, Wayne Clarence Hodgson, Janeyuth Chaisakul, Rachelle Sara Kornhauser, Nicki Konstantakopoulos, Alexander Ian Smith, Don M Sanjaya Kuruppu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

This study investigated the in vitro toxic effects of Bitis arietans venom and the ability of antivenom produced by the South African Institute of Medical Research (SAIMR) to neutralize these effects. The venom (50 microg/mL) reduced nerve-mediated twitches of the chick biventer muscle to 19 +/- 2 of initial magnitude (n = 4) within 2 h. This inhibitory effect of the venom was significantly attenuated by prior incubation of tissues with SAIMR antivenom (0.864 microg/microL; 67 +/- 4 ; P <0.05; n = 3-5, unpaired t-test). Addition of antivenom at t50 failed to prevent further inhibition or reverse the inhibition of twitches and responses to agonists. The myotoxic action of the venom (50 microg/mL) was evidenced by a decrease in direct twitches (30 +/- 6 of the initial twitch magnitude) and increase in baseline tension (by 0.7 +/- 0.3 g within 3 h) of the chick biventer. Antivenom failed to block these effects. Antivenom however prevented the venom induced cytotoxic effects on L6 skeletal muscle cells. Venom induced a marginal but significant reduction in plasma clotting times at concentrations above 7.8 microg/100 microL of plasma, indicating poor procoagulant effects. In addition, the results of western immunoblotting indicate strong immunoreactivity with venom proteins, thus warranting further detailed studies on the neutralization of the effects of individual venom toxins by antivenom.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1586 - 1597
Number of pages12
JournalToxins
Volume6
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014

Cite this

Fernandez, Steven ; Hodgson, Wayne Clarence ; Chaisakul, Janeyuth ; Kornhauser, Rachelle Sara ; Konstantakopoulos, Nicki ; Smith, Alexander Ian ; Kuruppu, Don M Sanjaya. / In vitro toxic effects of puff adder (Bitis arietans) venom, and their neutralization by antivenom. In: Toxins. 2014 ; Vol. 6, No. 5. pp. 1586 - 1597.
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abstract = "This study investigated the in vitro toxic effects of Bitis arietans venom and the ability of antivenom produced by the South African Institute of Medical Research (SAIMR) to neutralize these effects. The venom (50 microg/mL) reduced nerve-mediated twitches of the chick biventer muscle to 19 +/- 2 of initial magnitude (n = 4) within 2 h. This inhibitory effect of the venom was significantly attenuated by prior incubation of tissues with SAIMR antivenom (0.864 microg/microL; 67 +/- 4 ; P <0.05; n = 3-5, unpaired t-test). Addition of antivenom at t50 failed to prevent further inhibition or reverse the inhibition of twitches and responses to agonists. The myotoxic action of the venom (50 microg/mL) was evidenced by a decrease in direct twitches (30 +/- 6 of the initial twitch magnitude) and increase in baseline tension (by 0.7 +/- 0.3 g within 3 h) of the chick biventer. Antivenom failed to block these effects. Antivenom however prevented the venom induced cytotoxic effects on L6 skeletal muscle cells. Venom induced a marginal but significant reduction in plasma clotting times at concentrations above 7.8 microg/100 microL of plasma, indicating poor procoagulant effects. In addition, the results of western immunoblotting indicate strong immunoreactivity with venom proteins, thus warranting further detailed studies on the neutralization of the effects of individual venom toxins by antivenom.",
author = "Steven Fernandez and Hodgson, {Wayne Clarence} and Janeyuth Chaisakul and Kornhauser, {Rachelle Sara} and Nicki Konstantakopoulos and Smith, {Alexander Ian} and Kuruppu, {Don M Sanjaya}",
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In vitro toxic effects of puff adder (Bitis arietans) venom, and their neutralization by antivenom. / Fernandez, Steven; Hodgson, Wayne Clarence; Chaisakul, Janeyuth; Kornhauser, Rachelle Sara; Konstantakopoulos, Nicki; Smith, Alexander Ian; Kuruppu, Don M Sanjaya.

In: Toxins, Vol. 6, No. 5, 2014, p. 1586 - 1597.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

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T1 - In vitro toxic effects of puff adder (Bitis arietans) venom, and their neutralization by antivenom

AU - Fernandez, Steven

AU - Hodgson, Wayne Clarence

AU - Chaisakul, Janeyuth

AU - Kornhauser, Rachelle Sara

AU - Konstantakopoulos, Nicki

AU - Smith, Alexander Ian

AU - Kuruppu, Don M Sanjaya

PY - 2014

Y1 - 2014

N2 - This study investigated the in vitro toxic effects of Bitis arietans venom and the ability of antivenom produced by the South African Institute of Medical Research (SAIMR) to neutralize these effects. The venom (50 microg/mL) reduced nerve-mediated twitches of the chick biventer muscle to 19 +/- 2 of initial magnitude (n = 4) within 2 h. This inhibitory effect of the venom was significantly attenuated by prior incubation of tissues with SAIMR antivenom (0.864 microg/microL; 67 +/- 4 ; P <0.05; n = 3-5, unpaired t-test). Addition of antivenom at t50 failed to prevent further inhibition or reverse the inhibition of twitches and responses to agonists. The myotoxic action of the venom (50 microg/mL) was evidenced by a decrease in direct twitches (30 +/- 6 of the initial twitch magnitude) and increase in baseline tension (by 0.7 +/- 0.3 g within 3 h) of the chick biventer. Antivenom failed to block these effects. Antivenom however prevented the venom induced cytotoxic effects on L6 skeletal muscle cells. Venom induced a marginal but significant reduction in plasma clotting times at concentrations above 7.8 microg/100 microL of plasma, indicating poor procoagulant effects. In addition, the results of western immunoblotting indicate strong immunoreactivity with venom proteins, thus warranting further detailed studies on the neutralization of the effects of individual venom toxins by antivenom.

AB - This study investigated the in vitro toxic effects of Bitis arietans venom and the ability of antivenom produced by the South African Institute of Medical Research (SAIMR) to neutralize these effects. The venom (50 microg/mL) reduced nerve-mediated twitches of the chick biventer muscle to 19 +/- 2 of initial magnitude (n = 4) within 2 h. This inhibitory effect of the venom was significantly attenuated by prior incubation of tissues with SAIMR antivenom (0.864 microg/microL; 67 +/- 4 ; P <0.05; n = 3-5, unpaired t-test). Addition of antivenom at t50 failed to prevent further inhibition or reverse the inhibition of twitches and responses to agonists. The myotoxic action of the venom (50 microg/mL) was evidenced by a decrease in direct twitches (30 +/- 6 of the initial twitch magnitude) and increase in baseline tension (by 0.7 +/- 0.3 g within 3 h) of the chick biventer. Antivenom failed to block these effects. Antivenom however prevented the venom induced cytotoxic effects on L6 skeletal muscle cells. Venom induced a marginal but significant reduction in plasma clotting times at concentrations above 7.8 microg/100 microL of plasma, indicating poor procoagulant effects. In addition, the results of western immunoblotting indicate strong immunoreactivity with venom proteins, thus warranting further detailed studies on the neutralization of the effects of individual venom toxins by antivenom.

UR - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4052254/pdf/toxins-06-01586.pdf

U2 - 10.3390/toxins6051586

DO - 10.3390/toxins6051586

M3 - Article

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SP - 1586

EP - 1597

JO - Toxins

JF - Toxins

SN - 2072-6651

IS - 5

ER -