In-situ synchrotron FTIR studies were conducted using four Victorian brown coals and one Thailand lignite to examine the evolution of functional groups from the surface of the sample during pyrolysis from room temperature to 550◦C. TGA data showed that the pyrolysis of all coals is comprised of a dryingstage (30–200◦C) and devolatilization stage (200–900◦C). FTIR data showed that compared to Victorian brown coals, less surface functional groups were found in Thailand lignite. The loss of functional groups from Thailand lignite was observed during drying, and the devolatilization consisted of two stages. For Victorian brown coals, the concentration of oxygen contained hydroxyl and carboxyl groups decreased during the drying stage, due to the removal of water, and breakdown of weakly bonded alkene andalkyne. When temperature gradually increased during devolatilization stage, more functional groupswere released. However, by 550◦C, the groups at the wave number of 1700–1340 cm−1(carbonyl, carboxylate, aromatic ring, CH3and CH2groups) remained in the sample. Based on the spectra taken of two chars from the same brown coals, these groups were not completely removed until 1000◦C.
- Synchrotron beamline
- in-situ FTIR low-rank coals