Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug resistance and transmission among human immunodeficiency virus–infected patients in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

Trinh Quynh Mai, Elena Martinez, Ranjeeta Menon, Nguyen Thi Van Anh, Nguyen Tran Hien, Ben J. Marais, Vitali Sintchenko

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10 Citations (Scopus)


Vietnam has a high burden of tuberculosis (TB) and multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB, but drug resistance patterns and TB transmission dynamics among TB/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfected patients are not well described. We characterized 200 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from TB/HIV coinfected patients diagnosed at the main TB referral hospital in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Phenotypic drug susceptibility testing (DST) for first-line drugs, spoligotyping, and 24-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit (MIRU-24) analysis was performed on all isolates. The 24-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit clusters and MDR isolates were subjected to whole genome sequencing (WGS). Most of the TB/HIV coinfected patients were young (162/174; 93.1% aged < 45 years) males (173; 86.5% male). Beijing (98; 49.0%) and Indo-Oceanic (70; 35.0%) lineage strains were most common. Phenotypic drug resistance was detected in 84 (42.0%) isolates, of which 17 (8.5%) were MDR; three additional MDR strains were identified on WGS. Strain clustering was reduced from 84.0% with spoligotyping to 20.0% with MIRU-24 typing and to 13.5% with WGS. Whole genome sequencing identified five additional clusters, or members of clusters, not recognized by MIRU-24. In total, 13 small (two to three member) WGS clusters were identified, with less clustering among drug susceptible (2/27; 7.4%) than among drug-resistant strains (25/27; 92.6%). On phylogenetic analysis, strains from TB/HIV coinfected patients were interspersed among strains from the general community; no major clusters indicating transmission among people living with HIV were detected. Tuberculosis/HIV coinfection in Vietnam was associated with high rates of drug resistance and limited genomic evidence of ongoing M. tuberculosis transmission among HIV-infected patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1397-1406
Number of pages10
JournalAmerican Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2018
Externally publishedYes

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