Implementation of Antenatal Lifestyle Interventions into Routine Care: Secondary Analysis of a Systematic Review

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Importance: Lifestyle interventions in pregnancy optimize gestational weight gain and improve pregnancy outcomes, with implementation recommended by the US Preventive Services Task Force. Yet, implementation research taking these efficacy trials into pragmatic translation remains limited. Objective: To evaluate success factors for implementing pregnancy lifestyle interventions into antenatal care settings in a meta-analysis, using the penetration, implementation, participation, and effectiveness (PIPE) impact metric. Data Sources: Data from a previous systematic review that searched across 9 databases, including MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Health Technology Assessment Database, were obtained, in 2 stages, up to May 6, 2020. Study Selection: Randomized clinical trials reporting gestational weight gain in singleton pregnancies. Data Extraction and Synthesis: The association of penetration, implementation, and participation with effectiveness of antenatal lifestyle interventions in optimizing gestational weight gain was estimated using random-effects meta-analyses. The Cochrane risk of bias tool, version 1.0, was used to assess risk of bias. Main Outcomes and Measures: Penetration (reach), implementation (fidelity), participation, and effectiveness of randomized clinical trials of lifestyle interventions in pregnancy. Results: Ninety-nine studies with 34546 participants were included. Only 14 studies reported penetration of target populations. Overall, 38 studies (38.4%) had moderate fidelity, 25 (25.2%) had high fidelity, and 36 (36.4%) had unclear fidelity. Participation was reported in 84 studies (84.8%). Lifestyle interventions were associated with reducing gestational weight gain by 1.15 kg (95% CI, -1.40 to -0.91 kg). Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this systematic review and meta-analysis suggest that, despite the large body of evidence on efficacy of lifestyle interventions during pregnancy in optimizing gestational weight gain, little guidance is available to inform implementation of this evidence into practice. There is a need to better elucidate implementation outcomes in trial design alongside pragmatic implementation research to improve the health of women who are pregnant and the next generation..

Original languageEnglish
Article numberE2234870
Number of pages21
JournalJAMA Network Open
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 6 Oct 2022

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