The nervous, endocrine, and immune systems interact to adapt to infection, inflammation, and tissue injury. Neural control is mediated in several ways, one of them being through the neuroendocrine regulation of the secretion of hypothalamic and pituitary hormones. The hormonal effects on the immune system range from the impact of steroidal hormones, which exhibit inhibitory effects over immune functions, to growth hormone, prolactin and neurohypophyseal hormones, known to stimulate and modulate humoral and cellular aspects of the immune system. This review will discuss the mechanisms behind the immunomodulatory role of the neuroendocrine system, including the critically important feedback loops required to maintain balance for these bidirectional interactions and alterations that occur with age.
|Pages (from-to)||7 - 18|
|Number of pages||12|
|Publication status||Published - 2008|