Impact of pharmacist-led diabetes self-care education on patients with type 2 diabetes in Pakistan: A randomized controlled trial

Allah Bukhsh, Tahir Mehmood Khan, Pochamana Phisalprapa, Acharaporn Duangjai, Surasak Saokaew, Muhammad Sarfraz Nawaz, Hafiz Sajjad Ahmed, Bey Hing Goh

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Introduction: There is a little evidence on efficacy of pharmacy-based interventions on clinical outcomes of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients in Pakistan. Objective: To appraise the impact of pharmacist-led self-care education on glycemic control, self-care practices and disease knowledge of T2DM patients with poor glycemic control (HbA1c ≥ 7%). Methods: In this 6-months, randomized controlled trial (RCT), n = 75, T2DM patients seeking care at a diabetes clinic were randomized in to two groups. Intervention group (n = 38) received two face-to-face educational sessions (at enrollment and on week 12), whereas control group (n = 37) received usual care. Outcome measures such as glycemic control, self-care practices and disease knowledge were assessed at the time of enrollment and after 6-months in both groups. Results: Thirty-three intervention and thirty-three participants from the control group completed the study. Mean glycated hemoglobin (% HbA1c) significantly reduced in the intervention group from 9.00 ± 1.43 to 8.09 ± 1.16 (p <.01). However, no significant change was observed in the control group (9.20 ± 1.24 to 8.93 ±.97; p =.06). Cohen’s d effect size of the intervention on HbA1c was.78. Percentage of participants achieving glycemic control (HbA1c < 7%) were significantly higher (p <.05) in the intervention group as compared to the control group (twenty-four vs. six), after 6 months of the trial. A significant (p <.01) improvement in mean scores for disease knowledge and self-care activities was also observed in the intervention group participants, whereas no significant improvements (p >.05) were observed in the control group. Conclusion: The study demonstrated an improvement in glycemic control, disease knowledge and self-care activities of T2DM patients who received pharmacist-led educational intervention. The study findings support clinical significance of integrating pharmacy-based interventions in diabetes management.

Original languageEnglish
Article number754999
Number of pages9
JournalFrontiers in Pharmacology
Publication statusPublished - 9 Feb 2022


  • diabetes knowledge
  • Hba1 C
  • pharmacist
  • self-care
  • type 2 diabees (T2D)

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