Impact of HMGB1, RAGE, and TLR4 in Alzheimer's Disease (AD): From risk factors to therapeutic targeting

Yam Nath Paudel, Efthalia Angelopoulou, Christina Piperi, Iekhsan Othman, Khurram Aamir, Mohd Farooq Shaikh

    Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleOtherpeer-review

    33 Citations (Scopus)


    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder and a leading cause of dementia, with accumulation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) as defining pathological features. AD presents a serious global health concern with no cure to date, reflecting the complexity of its pathogenesis. Recent evidence indicates that neuroinflammation serves as the link between amyloid deposition, Tau pathology, and neurodegeneration. The high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein, an initiator and activator of neuroinflammatory responses, has been involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, including AD. HMGB1 is a typical damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) protein that exerts its biological activity mainly through binding to the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). RAGE and TLR4 are key components of the innate immune system that both bind to HMGB1. Targeting of HMGB1, RAGE, and TLR4 in experimental AD models has demonstrated beneficial effects in halting AD progression by suppressing neuroinflammation, reducing Aβ load and production, improving spatial learning, and inhibiting microglial stimulation. Herein, we discuss the contribution of HMGB1 and its receptor signaling in neuroinflammation and AD pathogenesis, providing evidence of its beneficial effects upon therapeutic targeting.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number383
    Number of pages26
    Issue number2
    Publication statusPublished - 7 Feb 2020


    • Alzheimer’s disease
    • HMGB1
    • Neuroinflammation
    • RAGE
    • TLR4

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