Objectives: Demographic and socioeconomic changes and the availability of health care resources were collected to examine the impacts on life expectancy in Cambodia, Laos, and Myanmar. Design and Sample: An ecological design collecting 29 years (1980-2008) data for three Southeast Asian countries. Measures: Life expectancy, demographics, socioeconomic status, and health care resources were collected. Results: The structural equation model indicates that more available health care resources and socioeconomic advantages were more likely to increase life expectancy. By contrast, demographic change was more likely to increase life expectancy by way of health care resources. Conclusions: Results show that factors that had direct impacts on life expectancy in all three countries were socioeconomic status and health care resources. Demographic changes had an indirect influence on life expectancy via health care resources. These findings suggest that policymakers should be focusing on how to remove the barriers that impede access to health care services during economic downturns. In addition, how to increase preventive care for the populations that have less access to health care in communities.