Cinacalcet is predominantly used to treat secondary hyperparathyroidism due to end-stage renal failure, but, more recently, its potential clinical efficacy in treating patients with loss-of-function mutations in the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) has been recognized. Many clinically relevant CaSR mutations are located in the heptahelical membrane spanning and extracellular loop regions of the receptor, where allosteric modulators are predicted to bind. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of such mutations on the pharmacoregulation of the CaSR by the positive and negative allosteric modulators, cinacalcet and NPS-2143, respectively. Both cinacalcet and NPS-2143 effectively rescued mutants whose cell surface expression was substantially impaired, suggesting that both classes of drug can stabilize a receptor conformation that is trafficked more effectively to the cell surface. In addition, functional impairments in almost all mutant CaSRs were rescued by either cinacalcet or NPS-2143 via restoration of intracellular signaling. There was a significantly greater ability of both compounds to modulate agonist-stimulated intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization than ERK1/2 phosphorylation, indicating that the allosteric modulators engender bias in agonist-stimulated CaSR signaling to different pathways. Three mutations (G(670)R, P(748)R, and L(773)R) altered the binding affinity of allosteric modulators to the CaSR, and 3 mutations (V(817)I, L(773)R, and E(767)K) altered the cooperativity between the allosteric modulator and Ca(2+)(o). These findings have important implications for the treatment of diseases associated with CaSR mutations using allosteric CaSR modulators and for analyzing the effects of mutations on the function and pharmacoregulation of the CaSR.