Immunogenic issues in diabetes, implications for Covid-19

Beatty DC, Yap CG

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review


This research is written by a person with Type 1 Diabetes diagnosed 44 years ago, treated with insulin 43 years, and with a 50-year career in healthcare. The journey has included experience in Diagnostic Laboratory Pathology Clinical Medicine; Radiology in CT and MRI; Respiratory Inhaled Therapy; Diabetes; Thyroid Disorders including Addison’s Disease. The investigations into insulin therapy in diabetes commenced 28 years ago after experience of a life threatening Hypoglycemia and Neuroglycopenia event in 1994 caused by alleged medical and professional negligence in public office then legal discovery of, on the balance of probability and beyond reasonable doubt, serious near fatal errors
in case patient care and subsequent factual misinterpretation and understanding. Sadly, in some cases tragic loss of life has occurred with difficulties in identifying exact cause of Hypoglycemia. Such cases leave on occasion coroner reports in certain cases somewhat hollow when more precise cause may help better understanding for families and loved ones to overcome tragic loss. The research identified a selection of historical cases identifying Hypoglycemia and Neuroglycopenia in clinical areas where insulin normoglycemia is dramatically affected by medication such as antibiotic treatment; infection exposure; exercise; poor diet; vitamin deficiency; electrolyte imbalance; stress; suspected Covid-19 exposure leading to Hypoglycemia and Hyperglycemia spikes which may lead to blood clots, ophthalmic retinopathy trauma; vascular blood flow disruption exposure to heart and limbs along with brain cognitive effect. This complex combination external patient exposure can
cause temporary cognitive interference with mental effects often associated to behavioral issues requiring Red Alert fast track witness support to correct temporary mental health impairment. Such events must be acted on immediately to prevent coma and death if prompt action is not taken along with possibility of affecting longer term cognitive issues.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-12
Number of pages12
JournalAnnals of Clinical and Medical Case Reports
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • Diabetes, Endocrinology; Hypoglycemia; Neuroglycopenia; Thyroid; Addison’s Disease; Genetic

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