Salmonella aro vaccines are able to confer solid protection against homologous virulent challenge in several animal species. Calves were protected against virulent S. typhimurium challenge following administration of a single oral dose of live BRD562 vaccine. Immune responses elicited by the S. typhimurium aro vaccine strain BRD562 were studied following administration to calves by either the oral or subcutaneous route. Serum antibodies to Salmonella polypeptides, following oral or subcutaneous vaccination were detected by immunoblotting and the route of inoculation found to affect both the antibody isotype and the antigens detected. Oral, but not subcutaneous, immunisation induced bovine serum IgA antibodies against Salmonella antigens of 30 kDa and 65 kDa and bovine IgG2 antibodies against a 35 kDa antigen. Subcutaneous vaccination triggered responses against antigens of 52 kDa, 54 kDa and 57 kDa which were not detected by immune plasma of animals immunised orally. Antibody responses to LPS were poor in animals inoculated by either route. Subcutaneous vaccination elicited T-cell responses against Salmonella antigens as measured by in vitro peripheral blood cell thymidine incorporation. These studies show that the S. typhimurium vaccine strain BRD562 is capable of inducing both humoral and cellular immune responses. Further studies are necessary to identify the nature of the antigens responsible for protection. Oral or subcutaneous inoculation of BRD562(pTETnir15) failed to induce serum antibodies against the fragment C of tetanus toxin (TetC) but was effective in mice. Oral vaccination with this recombinant vaccine induced mucosal IgA against TetC. This is the first time that Salmonella recombinant vaccines have been shown to successfully elicit antibodies against a guest antigen in cattle after one single or inoculation.