Immune checkpoints in targeted-immunotherapy of pancreatic cancer: New hope for clinical development

Seyed Hossein Kiaie, Mohammad Javad Sanaei, Masoud Heshmati, Zahra Asadzadeh, Iman Azimi, Saleh Hadidi, Reza Jafari, Behzad Baradaran

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleResearchpeer-review

23 Citations (Scopus)


Immunotherapy has been recently considered as a promising alternative for cancer treatment. Indeed, targeting of immune checkpoint (ICP) strategies have shown significant success in human malignancies. However, despite remarkable success of cancer immunotherapy in pancreatic cancer (PCa), many of the developed immunotherapy methods show poor therapeutic outcomes in PCa with no or few effective treatment options thus far. In this process, immunosuppression in the tumor microenvironment (TME) is found to be the main obstacle to the effectiveness of antitumor immune response induced by an immunotherapy method. In this paper, the latest findings on the ICPs, which mediate immunosuppression in the TME have been reviewed. In addition, different approaches for targeting ICPs in the TME of PCa have been discussed. This review has also synopsized the cutting-edge advances in the latest studies to clinical applications of ICP-targeted therapy in PCa.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1083-1097
Number of pages15
JournalActa Pharmaceutica Sinica B
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Clinical development
  • Immune checkpoint
  • Immunotherapy
  • Pancreatic cancer
  • Tumor microenvironment

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