ABSTRACT: The kidney can be negatively affected by a range of innate and adaptive immune responses, resulting in alterations in the functions of the kidney and, in some cases, progression to renal failure. In many of these responses, infiltration of blood-borne leukocytes into the kidney is central to the response. In addition, a large population of mononuclear phagocytes resident in the kidney can modulate these responses. A great deal of research has investigated both the mechanisms of leukocyte recruitment to the kidney and the actions of immune cells resident within the kidney. Due to the dynamic nature of the processes whereby leukocytes enter sites of inflammation, in vivo imaging has been 1 of the key approaches used for understanding leukocyte recruitment as it occurs throughout the body, and this is also true of the kidney. However, imaging this organ and its complicated microvasculature during different forms of renal pathology presents a unique set of challenges. In this review, we examine the approaches used for intravital imaging of the kidney, and summarise the insights gained from these studies regarding the mechanisms of leukocyte entry into kidney during inflammation, and the actions of immune cells within this organ.