Candidate vaccines designed to generate T cell–based immunity are typically vectored by nonpersistent viruses, which largely fail to elicit durable effector memory T cell responses. This limitation can be overcome using recombinant strains of CMV. Proof-of-principle studies have demonstrated the potential benefits of this approach, most notably in the SIV model, but safety concerns require the development of nonreplicating alternatives with comparable immunogenicity. In this study, we show that IL-33 promotes the accumulation and recall kinetics of circulating and tissue-resident memory T cells in mice infected with murine CMV. Using a replication-deficient murine CMV vector, we further show that exogenous IL-33 boosts vaccine-induced memory T cell responses, which protect against subsequent heterologous viral challenge. These data suggest that IL-33 could serve as a useful adjuvant to improve the efficacy of vaccines based on attenuated derivatives of CMV. The Journal of Immunology, 2019, 202: 943–955.