Identifying and addressing osteoporosis knowledge gaps in women with premature ovarian insufficiency and early menopause: A mixed-methods study

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Objective: Osteoporosis associated with premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) and early menopause (EM) is a major concern for women. We aimed to (a) identify information and knowledge gaps and behaviours regarding bone health in women with POI/EM and (b) co-design an osteoporosis fact sheet. Design: Mixed-methods study: survey of women and online resource appraisals to develop and refine, using semi-structured interviews, an osteoporosis fact sheet. Patients: Women with POI/EM (menopause before ages 40 and 45 years respectively). Measurements: Demographics, comorbidities, information needs, calcium intake, exercise, osteoporosis knowledge (OKAT), beliefs and self-efficacy, DISCERN appraisal (validated scales). Analysis: descriptive statistics, logistic regression and thematic analysis of interviews. Results: Median age of survey respondents (n = 316) was 54(IQR47-63) years, median age of menopause was 40(IQR38-43) years, and osteoporosis diagnosis was reported in 19%. Most reported inadequate dietary calcium intake (99%) and exercise (65%). Median OKAT score 8 [IQR6-10]/19 indicated knowledge gaps regarding risk factors and treatment options. Adjusting for age and education, OKAT predicted calcium intake (OR 1.126 [CI 1.035-1.225]; P = 0.006) and screening (OR 1.186 [CI 1.077-1.305]; P = 0.001); beliefs predicted screening (OR 1.027 [CI 1.004-1.050]; P = 0.019); and self-efficacy predicted calcium intake (OR1.040 (CI 1.013-1.069); P = 0.003] and exercise (OR 1.117 [CI 1.077-1.160]; P < 0.001). Current online resources have deficiencies. Five themes identified from two interview rounds (n = 10/ round) were as follows: content, emotional response, design, perceived usefulness and clinical considerations. The final fact sheet was considered acceptable and useful in addressing knowledge gaps, promoting information-seeking, impacting behaviours and facilitating healthcare discussions. Conclusion: A co-designed fact sheet is acceptable and addresses identified osteoporosis knowledge gaps in women with POI/EM.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)498-507
Number of pages10
JournalClinical Endocrinology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2019


  • information
  • knowledge
  • menopause
  • osteoporosis
  • premature ovarian insufficiency

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