Betaretroviruses infect a wide range of species including primates, rodents, ruminants, and marsupials. They exist in both endogenous and exogenous forms and are implicated in animal diseases such as lung cancer in sheep, and in human disease, with members of the human endogenous retrovirus-K (HERV-K) group of endogenous betaretroviruses (betaERVs) associated with human cancers and autoimmune diseases. To improve our understanding of betaretroviruses in an evolutionarily distinct host species, we characterized betaERVs present in the genomes and transcriptomes of mega- and microbats, which are an important reservoir of emerging viruses. RESULTS: A diverse range of full-length betaERVs were discovered in mega- and microbat genomes and transcriptomes including the first identified intact endogenous retrovirus in a bat. Our analysis revealed that the genus Betaretrovirus can be divided into eight distinct sub-groups with evidence of cross-species transmission. Betaretroviruses are revealed to be a complex retrovirus group, within which one sub-group has evolved from complex to simple genomic organization through the acquisition of an env gene from the genus Gammaretrovirus. Molecular dating suggests that bats have contended with betaretroviral infections for over 30 million years. CONCLUSIONS: Our study reveals that a diverse range of betaretroviruses have circulated in bats for most of their evolutionary history, and cluster with extant betaretroviruses of divergent mammalian lineages suggesting that their distribution may be largely unrestricted by host species barriers. The presence of betaERVs with the ability to transcribe active viral elements in a major animal reservoir for viral pathogens has potential implications for public health.
Hayward, J. A., Tachedjian, M., Cui, J., Field, H., Holmes, E. C., Wang, L-F., & Tachedjian, G. (2013). Identification of diverse full-length endogenous betaretroviruses in megabats and microbats. Retrovirology, 10(1), 1 - 19. https://doi.org/10.1186/1742-4690-10-35