Identification and characterization of an interferon (IFN)-stimulated response element-IFN-stimulated gene factor 3-independent signaling pathway for IFN-α

S. Jaharul Haque, Bryan R.G. Williams

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Transcriptional activation of genes containing the interferon (IFN)- stimulated response element (ISRE) by IFN-α is known to be mediated through the post-translational activation of IFN-stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF3) and its subsequent interactions with the ISRE. We have identified an ISRE-ISGF3- independent signaling pathway used by IFN-α for the induction of the IFN regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) gene. A minimal functional promoter of the IRF-1 gene does not contain an ISRE, but we have shown that transcription of the IRF-1 gene is activated by IFN-α in cell lines that do not produce ISGF3 activity due to the absence of functional ISGF3-γ (p48) polypeptide. This ISRE-ISGF3-independent pathway for IFN-α signaling involves a cis-acting enhancer element located in the IRF-1 promoter, termed the inverted repeat (IR) element, and its cognate trans-acting factor, IR-binding factor α (IRBF-α). IFN-γ also activates a transcription factor(s) that forms a different complex (IRBF-γ) with the IR element. Protein-tyrosine kinase (tyk2) activity is required for the induction of IRBF-α, but not IRBF-γ. The p91 subunit of ISGF3 is necessary for the formation of both IRBF-α and IRBF-γ.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)19523-19529
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Biological Chemistry
Issue number30
Publication statusPublished - 29 Jul 1994
Externally publishedYes

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