Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a key immunoregulatory cytokine that functions to prevent inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Despite the critical role for IL-10 produced by effector CD8+ T cells during pathogen infection and autoimmunity, the mechanisms regulating its production are poorly understood.Weshowthat loss of the inhibitor ofDNA binding 2 (Id2) in T cells resulted in aberrant IL-10 expression in vitro and in vivo during influenza virus infection and in a model of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Furthermore, IL-10 overproduction substantially reduced the immunopathology associated with GVHD. We demonstrate that Id2 acts to repress the E2A-mediated transactivation of the Il10 locus. Collectively, our findings uncover a key regulatory role of Id2 during effector T cell differentiation necessary to limit IL-10 production by activated T cells and minimize their suppressive activity during the effector phase of disease control.