Acinetobacter baumannii subunit vaccines: recent progress and challenges

Yi Teng Lau, Hock Siew Tan

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleResearchpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Acinetobacter baumannii is a Gram-negative, opportunistic pathogen that causes nosocomial infection with a high mortality rate in immunocompromised individuals. With the frequent emergence of multidrug-resistant A. baumannii strains that have rapidly gained resistance to most antibiotics, an extensive search for an effective A. baumannii vaccine is ongoing. Over the decade, many subunit vaccine candidates were identified using reverse vaccinology and in vivo animal studies for validation. Nineteen subunit vaccine candidates with a wide range of efficacy, from 14% to 100% preclinical survival rates, were included in this review. This article provides an updated review of several outer membrane proteins (Omp) that emerged as vaccine candidates with great potential, including OmpA, Omp34, Omp22 and BamA, based on their high conservancy, antigenicity, and immune protection against A. baumannii infection. However, there is still no licenced A. baumannii vaccine currently due to several practical issues that have yet to be resolved, such as inconsistencies between validation studies, antigen variability and insolubility. Moving forward, much investigation and innovation are still required to tackle these challenges for the regulatory approval of an A. baumannii subunit vaccine, including standardisation of immunisation study parameters, improving antigen solubility and the incorporation of nucleic acid vaccine technology.

Original languageEnglish
Number of pages16
JournalCritical Reviews in Microbiology
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2023


  • Acinetobacter baumannii
  • outer membrane protein
  • reverse vaccinology
  • subunit vaccine
  • vaccine candidate

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