Hyperglycemia potentiates the slowing of gastric emptying induced by exogenous GLP-1

Mark P. Plummer, Karen L. Jones, Caroline E. Cousins, Laurence G. Trahair, Juris J. Meier, Marianne J. Chapman, Michael Horowitz, Adam M. Deane

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22 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

OBJECTIVE Acute hyperglycemia markedly slows gastric emptying. Exogenous GLP-1 also slows gastric emptying, leading to diminished glycemic excursions. The primary objective was to determine whether hyperglycemia potentiates the slowing of gastric emptying induced by GLP-1 administration. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Ten healthy participants were studied on 4 separate days. Blood glucose was clamped at hyperglycemia using an intravenous infusion of 25% dextrose (12 mmol/L; hyper) on 2 days, or maintained at euglycemia (6 mmol/L; eu) on 2 days, between t = 215 and 240 min. During hyperglycemic and euglycemic days, participants received intravenous GLP-1 (1.2 pmol/kg/min) and placebo in a randomized double-blind fashion. At t = 0 min, subjects ingested 100 g beefmince labeled with 20 MBq technetium-99m-sulfur colloid and 3 g 3-O-methyl-glucose (3-OMG), a marker of glucose absorption. Gastric emptying was measured scintigraphically fromt = 0 to 240 min and serum 3-OMG taken at regular intervals from t = 15 to 240 min. The areas under the curve for gastric emptying and 3-OMGwere analyzed using one-way repeated-measures ANOVA with Bonferroni-Holm adjusted post hoc tests. RESULTS Hyperglycemia slowed gastric emptying (eu/placebo vs. hyper/placebo; P < 0.001) as did GLP-1 (eu/placebo vs. eu/GLP-1; P < 0.001). There was an additive effect of GLP-1 and hyperglycemia, such that gastric emptying was markedly slower compared with GLP-1 administration during euglycemia (eu/GLP-1 vs. hyper/GLP-1; P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS Acute administration of exogenous GLP-1 profoundly slows gastric emptying during hyperglycemia in excess of the slowing induced by GLP-1 during euglycemia. Studies are required to determine the effects of hyperglycemia on gastric emptying with the subcutaneously administered commercially available GLP-1 agonists in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1123-1129
Number of pages7
JournalDiabetes Care
Volume38
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2015
Externally publishedYes

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