Hydrogen as an energy vector

Zainul Abdin, Ali Zafaranloo, Ahmad Rafiee, Walter Mérida, Wojciech Lipiński, Kaveh R. Khalilpour

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleResearchpeer-review

590 Citations (Scopus)


Hydrogen is known as a technically viable and benign energy vector for applications ranging from the small-scale power supply in off-grid modes to large-scale chemical energy exports. However, with hydrogen being naturally unavailable in its pure form, traditionally reliant industries such as oil refining and fertilisers have sourced it through emission-intensive gasification and reforming of fossil fuels. Although the deployment of hydrogen as an alternative energy vector has long been discussed, it has not been realised because of the lack of low-cost hydrogen generation and conversion technologies. The recent tipping point in the cost of some renewable energy technologies such as wind and photovoltaics (PV) has mobilised continuing sustained interest in renewable hydrogen through water splitting. This paper presents a critical review of the current state of the arts of hydrogen supply chain as a forwarding energy vector, comprising its resources, generation and storage technologies, demand market, and economics.

Original languageEnglish
Article number109620
Number of pages32
JournalRenewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2020


  • Hydrogen carriers
  • Hydrogen economy
  • Hydrogen generation
  • Hydrogen storage
  • Hydrogen supply chain
  • Renewable hydrogen

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