Human neonatal rotavirus vaccine (RV3-BB) to target rotavirus from birth

J. E. Bines, J. At Thobari, C.D. Satria, A. Handley, E. Watts, D. Cowley, H. Nirwati, J. Ackland, J. Standish, F. Justice, G. Byars, K.J. Lee, G.L. Barnes, N.S. Bachtiar, A. Viska Icanervilia, K. Boniface, N. Bogdanovic-Sakran, D. Pavlic, R.F. Bishop, C.D. KirkwoodJ.P. Buttery, Y. Soenarto

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BACKGROUND: A strategy of administering a neonatal rotavirus vaccine at birth to target early prevention of rotavirus gastroenteritis may address some of the barriers to global implementation of a rotavirus vaccine. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in Indonesia to evaluate the efficacy of an oral human neonatal rotavirus vaccine (RV3-BB) in preventing rotavirus gastroenteritis. Healthy newborns received three doses of RV3-BB, administered according to a neonatal schedule (0 to 5 days, 8 weeks, and 14 weeks of age) or an infant schedule (8 weeks, 14 weeks, and 18 weeks of age), or placebo. The primary analysis was conducted in the per-protocol population, which included only participants who received all four doses of vaccine or placebo within the visit windows, with secondary analyses performed in the intention-to-treat population, which included all participants who underwent randomization. RESULTS: Among the 1513 participants in the per-protocol population, severe rotavirus gastroenteritis occurred up to the age of 18 months in 5.6% of the participants in the placebo group (28 of 504 babies), in 1.4% in the neonatal-schedule vaccine group (7 of 498), and in 2.7% in the infant-schedule vaccine group (14 of 511). This resulted in a vaccine efficacy of 75% (95% confidence interval [CI], 44 to 91) in the neonatal-schedule group (P<0.001), 51% (95% CI, 7 to 76) in the infant-schedule group (P = 0.03), and 63% (95% CI, 34 to 80) in the neonatal-schedule and infant-schedule groups combined (combined vaccine group) (P<0.001). Similar results were observed in the intention-to-treat analysis (1649 participants); the vaccine efficacy was 68% (95% CI, 35 to 86) in the neonatalschedule group (P = 0.001), 52% (95% CI, 11 to 76) in the infant-schedule group (P = 0.02), and 60% (95% CI, 31 to 76) in the combined vaccine group (P<0.001). Vaccine response, as evidenced by serum immune response or shedding of RV3-BB in the stool, occurred in 78 of 83 participants (94%) in the neonatal-schedule group and in 83 of 84 participants (99%) in the infant-schedule group. The incidence of adverse events was similar across the groups. No episodes of intussusception occurred within the 21-day risk period after administration of any dose of vaccine or placebo, and one episode of intussusception occurred 114 days after the third dose of vaccine in the infant-schedule group. CONCLUSIONS: RV3-BB was efficacious in preventing severe rotavirus gastroenteritis when administered according to a neonatal or an infant schedule in Indonesia. (Funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and others; Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry number, ACTRN12612001282875.).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)719-730
Number of pages12
JournalThe New England Journal of Medicine
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 22 Feb 2018

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