Human Immunization with a Polymorphic Malaria Vaccine Candidate Induced Antibodies to Conserved Epitopes That Promote Functional Antibodies to Multiple Parasite Strains

Gaoqian Feng, Michelle J. Boyle, Nadia Cross, Jo Anne Chan, Linda Reiling, Faith Osier, Danielle I. Stanisic, Ivo Mueller, Robin F. Anders, James S. McCarthy, Jack S. Richards, James G. Beeson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

27 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background Overcoming antigenic diversity is a key challenge in the development of effective Plasmodium falciparum malaria vaccines. Strategies that promote the generation of antibodies targeting conserved epitopes of vaccine antigens may provide protection against diverse parasites strains. Understanding differences between vaccine-induced and naturally acquired immunity is important to achieving this goal. Methods We analyzed antibodies generated in a phase 1 human vaccine trial, MSP2-C1, which included 2 allelic forms of MSP2, an abundant vaccine antigen on the merozoite surface. Vaccine-induced responses were assessed for functional activity against multiple parasite strains, and cross-reactivity of antibodies was determined using competition ELISA and epitope mapping approaches. Results Vaccination induced cytophilic antibody responses with strain-transcending opsonic phagocytosis and complement-fixing function. In contrast to antibodies acquired via natural infection, vaccine-induced antibodies were directed towards conserved epitopes at the C-terminus of MSP2, whereas naturally acquired antibodies mainly targeted polymorphic epitopes. Functional activity of C-terminal-targeted antibodies was confirmed using monoclonal antibodies that promoted opsonic phagocytosis against multiple parasite strains. Conclusion Vaccination generated markedly different responses to polymorphic antigens than naturally acquired immunity and targeted conserved functional epitopes. Induction of antibodies targeting conserved regions of malaria antigens provides a promising vaccine strategy to overcome antigenic diversity for developing effective malaria vaccines.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)35-43
Number of pages9
JournalThe Journal of Infectious Diseases
Volume218
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2018

Keywords

  • antibody cross-reactivity
  • complement
  • malaria
  • merozoite surface protein 2
  • opsonic phagocytosis
  • vaccine

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