Nonlive vaccine platforms that induce potent cellular immune responses in mucosal tissue would have broad application for vaccines against infectious diseases and tumors. Induction of cellular immunity could be optimized by targeted activation of multiple innate and costimulatory signaling pathways, such as CD40 or TLRs. In this study, we evaluated immune activation and elicitation of T cell responses in nonhuman primates after immunization with peptide Ags adjuvanted with an agonistic anti-CD40Ab, with or without the TLR3 ligand poly IC:LC. We found that i.v. administration of the anti-CD40Ab induced rapid and transient innate activation characterized by IL-12 production and upregulated costimulatory and lymph node homing molecules on dendritic cells. Using fluorescently labeled Abs for in vivo tracking, we found that the anti-CD40Ab bound to all leukocytes, except T cells, and disseminated to multiple organs. CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses were significantly enhanced when the anti-CD40Ab was coadministered with poly IC:LC compared with either adjuvant given alone and were almost exclusively compartmentalized to the lung. Notably, Ag-specific T cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage were sustained at ∼5-10%. These data indicate that systemic administration of anti-CD40Ab may be particularly advantageous for vaccines and/or therapies that require T cell immunity in the lung.