We previously demonstrated that mesenchymal cells from human amniotic membrane (hAMTCs) inhibit the generation and maturation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) in vitro. Considering the crucial role of DCs in the immune response and that epithelial cells of the human amniotic membrane (hAECs) share some of the immunoregulatory properties of hAMTCs, we investigated whether hAECs also modulate monocyte-derived DCs. We compared hAECs with hAMTCs in a cell-to-cell contact setting and their secreted factors in modulating DC differentiation and function. First, we demonstrated that primary and expanded hAMTCs strongly inhibited the differentiation of DCs and induced a shift toward M2-like macrophages. This was observed when hAMTCs were cultured in contact (hAMTC-DC(cont)) or in Transwells (hAMTC-DC(tw)) with monocytes and even when medium conditioned by hAMTCs was used instead of hAMTCs. hAECs also prevented DC development, but to a lesser extent than hAMTCs. hAECs were more effective when cultured in contact with monocytes (hAEC-DC(cont)) rather than in Transwells (hAEC-DC(tw)). The modulatory capacity of hAECs changed during passaging unlike the hAMSCs. The ability to stimulate CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell proliferation was almost completely abolished by hAMTC-DC(cont), whereas hAMTC-DC(tw) and hAEC-DC(cont) displayed only a reduced ability to stimulate CD8(+) T cells. Furthermore, monocytes cocultured with hAMTCs and hAECs showed some similarities, but also differences in cytokine/chemokine secretion. Similarities were observed in the inhibition of IL-12p70 and TNF-alpha and the increase in IL-10 in supernatants taken from monocyte-DCs cocultured with hAMTCs and hAECs in contact and Transwell settings. The inflammatory factors IL-8, CXCL9, and MIP-1alpha were significantly lower in hAMTC-DC(cont), hAMTC-DC(tw), and hAEC-DC(cont) conditions. In contrast, only hAMTCs (in both contact and Transwell conditions) were able to significantly increase IL-1beta and CCL2. Altogether, we demonstrated that hAMTCs and hAECs affect DC differentiation, but that hAMTCs exerted a stronger inhibitory effect, abolished T-cell proliferation, and also induced more changes in cytokine/chemokine production.