BACKGROUND AIMS: Human amnion epithelial cells (hAECs) prevent pulmonary inflammation and injury in fetal sheep exposed to intrauterine lipopolysaccharide. We hypothesized that hAECs would similarly mitigate hyperoxia-induced neonatal lung injury. METHODS: Newborn mouse pups were randomized to either normoxia (inspired O2 content (FiO2) = 0.21, n = 60) or hyperoxia (FiO2 = 0.85, n = 57). On postnatal days (PND) 5, 6 and 7, hAECs or sterile saline (control) was administered intraperitoneally. All animals were assessed at PND 14. RESULTS: Hyperoxia was associated with lung inflammation, alveolar simplification and reduced postnatal growth. Administration of hAECs to hyperoxia-exposed mice normalized body weight and significantly attenuated some aspects of hyperoxia-induced lung injury (mean linear intercept and septal crest density) and inflammation (interleukin-1alpha, interleukin-6, transforming growth factor-beta and platelet-derived growth factor-beta). However, hAECs did not significantly alter changes to alveolar airspace volume, septal tissue volume, tissue-to-airspace ratio, collagen content or leukocyte infiltration induced by hyperoxia. CONCLUSIONS: Intraperitoneal administration of hAECs to neonatal mice partially reduced hyperoxia-induced lung inflammation and structural lung damage. These observations suggest that hAECs may be a potential therapy for neonatal lung disease.